What is Dabbing?Dabbing can be a perplexing realm for newcomers, filled with its own jargon and abbreviations. Our comprehensive dabbing guide is here to demystify it all. We'll cover everything you need to know, from what dabbing is and how to do it, to exploring various types of dabs, their production methods, and much more. Get ready to unlock the secrets of the dabbing world!Dabs are potent cannabis concentrates available in various textures. They are consumed using a dab rig, e-rig (electronic rig), or dab pen. Dabbing involves intense heat, vaporizing dabs at temperatures between 400-600°F, compared to the approximately 350°F for smoking flower.A typical dab rig resembles a bong, featuring a glass chamber filled with water. Instead of a bowl for flower, it has a nail for dabs. To achieve the necessary temperature, the nail is typically heated with a torch and allowed to cool before adding the dab.Dabs are named after their texture, which corresponds to the specific extraction method used to create them. They are sticky and can be messy to handle, displaying a range of colors such as yellow, amber, brown, and even white.Guide to dabbingVarious extraction methods (more details below) are employed to separate trichomes from cannabis plant material, resulting in cannabis extracts with different textures such as oil, sap, wax, butter, taffy, sauce, and more.These extractions are concentrated forms of cannabis, containing only trichome resin without plant material, commonly referred to as cannabis concentrates or extracts. The terms extract and concentrate are interchangeable.Dabbing is the primary method of consuming most concentrates or extracts. When concentrates or extracts are consumed through dabbing, they are often called dabs.However, not all concentrates or extracts are used for dabbing. For example, kief and tinctures (usually alcohol extractions) are concentrates or extracts that are not dabbed but still involve the concentration of trichomes from the cannabis plant material.Vape pens, which utilize cartridges, are also extracts but are diluted with additives to reduce potency. They are not considered dabs since they are not used with a dab rig.In this guide, our focus will be on dabs and dabbing, exploring the exciting world of cannabis concentrates and their consumption through the dabbing process.What are oil and hash?The terms "oil" and "hash" can sometimes be perplexing as they can be used broadly to describe extracts in general, but they can also refer to specific types of extractions.For instance, "oil" can specifically refer to distillate, which has an oil-like consistency, while "hash" may refer to dry-sift or brick hash in particular.Interestingly, July 10th is recognized as "Oil Day," a celebration of all cannabis extractions, not exclusively distillate. Similarly, the term "hash head" doesn't necessarily imply an individual who exclusively enjoys dry-sift hash but rather someone who appreciates extracts in general.Benefits of dabbingDabbing may not be suitable for everyone, especially for those new to cannabis. However, when practiced safely with clean and tested products, patients and consumers find several advantages to dabbing.Potency: Dabs are favored for their potency. Some individuals have a high tolerance or seek a strong cannabis experience, while others enjoy the ritual involved.Flavor: Dabs are known for their flavorful and "terpy" nature, enriched with aromatic terpenes. A high-quality concentrate can preserve the original plant's flavor and aroma throughout the extraction process.Cleanliness: Properly made extracts are often cleaner, purer, and less harsh on the lungs. Unlike smoking cannabis, extracts minimize unwanted materials while still delivering essential cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds.Quick Onset: Patients suffering from severe or chronic pain, as well as extreme nausea, report that dabbing cannabis extracts provides immediate and effective relief.Dabbing Safety: Dabbing has its own considerations and differs from smoking, vaping, or consuming edibles. However, the long-term effects of dabbing cannabis concentrates remain largely unexplored. Here are important points to bear in mind:Dabbing and Overdose: Overdosing on cannabis is not possible, but dabs' potency can catch inexperienced users off guard. Concentrates typically range from 60-90% THC, so even a small dab equals the potency of multiple joints. Start with a small amount in a comfortable setting, preferably with guidance from an experienced friend, to avoid overwhelming effects.Solvents: It is crucial to acquire lab-tested and approved cannabis products, especially dabs made with solvents. Proper purging of solvents is essential, and legal markets have strict regulations on residual solvent levels. Untested dabs may contain harmful traces of solvents, posing risks to lung health and overall well-being.High Temperatures: Nails and e-nails reach extremely high temperatures, up to 600°F. Caution must be exercised to avoid accidental burns. Allow all components to cool completely before handling. For those concerned about torches, e-nails or e-rigs provide a viable alternative, offering consistent heat without the need for a torch.By practicing caution and using tested products, you can enhance the safety and enjoyment of your dabbing experience.How are dabs made?Creating cannabis extractions involves various methods, but they all share the objective of isolating trichomes, which contain valuable cannabinoids and terpenes, from cannabis plant material to form concentrated forms.Several factors contribute to the texture, potency, and flavor of concentrates:Source Material: Extracts are typically made using trim or flower. Trim refers to the sugar leaves and other plant material separated from buds, while flower-only extractions are known as nug runs, which tend to be higher in quality due to the greater concentration of trichomes.Extraction Methods: Extraction can be performed using solvents or through solventless techniques.Post-Extraction Refining: Refinement processes such as dewaxing, winterization, and whipping are employed to remove plant lipids, fats, and waxes from the extract. These processes enhance flavor, reduce harshness, and create a clear appearance.Solvent Extractions:Commercial extractors primarily use solvents like butane or propane in a closed-loop system to strip trichomes from the plant material. The resulting concentrate slurry undergoes solvent purging. Common solvent extractions include shatter, wax, live resin, budder, and more. It is crucial to perform solvent extractions using closed-loop systems under trained and licensed professionals for safety reasons.Solventless Extractions:Solventless extractions separate trichomes from plant material using temperature changes and physical manipulation. Examples include bubble hash, created by agitating cannabis in ice water, and dry-sift hash, produced by rubbing plant material through screens. Rosin is made by pressing heated plates against cannabis to extract oil. Solventless extractions are natural, handmade, and are considered cleaner since they don't involve chemicals.Post-Extraction Cleanup:Solventless extractions are typically ready for consumption, while solvent extractions often undergo further refinement. Dewaxing and winterization processes eliminate lipids, fats, and waxes, resulting in less harsh and visually clear concentrates. Whipping can transform oily extracts into waxy ones, enhancing aroma and flavor. Vacuum ovens are commonly used to remove residual solvents from extracts in a safe manner.Understanding the various extraction methods and refinement processes allows for informed consumption choices when it comes to cannabis concentrates.Types of dabsDabs come in a wide range of varieties, and they can be classified based on the production method: solvent extracts and solventless extracts. Here's a breakdown of the different types and what sets them apart:Solvent Extractions:These concentrates are created using solvents or chemicals like butane or propane in a closed-loop system operated by licensed technicians. The solvents are then purged from the final product at the end of the extraction process. Solvent extracts are typically more affordable and easier to produce compared to solventless extracts.In legal markets, all cannabis extractions made with solvents undergo testing to ensure that any residual solvents remaining in the product meet safety standards. If the levels of residual solvents are too high, the product will not pass the testing requirements and cannot be sold. It is crucial to purchase solvent extraction products only from legal markets to guarantee a safe level of residual solvents.By understanding the distinction between solvent and solventless extractions, consumers can make informed choices and prioritize their safety when selecting dabs from the market.OilOil, often referred to as distillate, exhibits a thick liquid consistency. Distillate is widely employed in vape cartridges due to its ability to isolate specific cannabis compounds. Moreover, it serves as a versatile ingredient for crafting edibles, topicals, and various other cannabis-infused productsShatterShatter, often showcasing a golden or amber hue, is a solid concentrate that resembles glass and breaks apart easily. This type of solvent extract is poured into sheets and typically undergoes purging in a vacuum oven to remove any remaining solvents.Producing clear and top-notch shatter can be challenging, as preventing it from transforming into a buttery and opaque consistency requires careful execution. Known for its potency, shatter stands as one of the prevalent cannabis extracts available in the market.WaxWax serves as a broad term encompassing various types of dabs that possess a soft and pliable consistency. When shatter loses its clarity and becomes more buttery, it is typically whipped and transformed into wax.Under the wax category, you'll find nuanced forms such as budder, batter, sugar, crumble, and more. While wax is predominantly used for dabbing, it can also be incorporated into bowls, joints, or blunts to enhance potency. Although several techniques can be employed to produce wax, the use of butane is common in its creation.Taffy/Pull ‘n’ snapPull 'n' snap is a glossy and flat concentrate with a soft, taffy-like texture. It bears resemblance to shatter but possesses a more flexible consistency. Like shatter, it is often derived from hydrocarbon extracts that undergo minimal disturbance during the purging phase.One of the notable traits of pull 'n' snap is its ease of use, making it convenient for handling. However, it can become stringy and messy when exposed to higher temperatures. Storing pull 'n' snap at cooler temperatures restores its consistency to a more shatter-like state.Budder/Batter/BadderBudder, batter, or badder, is a form of wax with a texture resembling cake batter—thick, gooey, and slightly drippy. It typically displays a golden or blond hue and is notably easy to manipulate and handle.SugarSugar, also known as sugar wax, possesses a texture reminiscent of wet, undissolved sugar. It exhibits a semi-crystalline structure and is slightly looser and more moist compared to badder.Initially, sugar wax was discovered accidentally when other extracts transformed into a sugary consistency due to condensation. However, it is now intentionally produced and valued for its user-friendly texture, which makes it easy to handle.CrumbleCrumble, also known as honeycomb, is a wax variant that exhibits a drier and more brittle consistency compared to other extracts. It easily breaks apart and typically features a dark yellow color. Due to its challenging handling properties, crumble is often priced more affordably than other solvent extracts.The production process of crumble is similar to that of shatter, but it undergoes an extended duration in a vacuum oven, resulting in a drier texture and reducing the risk of mold contamination. In some cases, extractors may gently whip the crumble prior to heating to encourage its characteristic crumbly consistency, as opposed to forming into shatter.Live ResinLive resin is derived from cannabis plants that are harvested and immediately frozen, maintaining their frozen state throughout the extraction process. This sets it apart from other extracts, which typically use dried plant material. By preserving the frozen plant matter, live resin retains a higher concentration of terpenes, resulting in dabs that are more aromatic and flavorful.Utilizing solvents, live resin often possesses a saucy consistency, which makes it convenient to handle during dabbing and an excellent choice for vape cartridges.DiamondsDiamonds are concentrated formations predominantly composed of a single cannabis compound, such as THCA or CBD, resulting in an exceptionally high level of purity that gives them a crystalline structure resembling diamonds.As they consist primarily of one compound, they are commonly referred to as isolates. In contrast, full-spectrum extracts encompass a broader range of cannabinoids and terpenes derived from the entire plant.Diamonds are frequently consumed through dabbing alongside terp sauce since they possess minimal terpenes and do not offer a substantial flavor profile of their own.SauceSauce, also referred to as terp sauce, is a viscous mixture consisting of cannabinoids and terpenes, renowned for its rich and pronounced flavors. It may contain small diamond-like crystalline structures, giving it a slightly granular appearance. Prior to its final form, it typically undergoes winterization to eliminate fats and lipids. The color of terp sauce commonly ranges from amber to yellow.Solventless ExtractionsSolventless dabs are crafted without the use of chemicals, relying instead on physical manipulation and temperature adjustments. This method typically involves more labor-intensive processes, resulting in higher production costs. However, solventless dabs are often regarded as cleaner due to the absence of chemical solvents in their production.RosinRosin is a solventless extract produced through the application of heat and pressure. Cannabis plant material is placed between two heated plates in a press, extracting a hot oil that is subsequently cooled down.Live rosin follows the same process, but utilizes frozen cannabis plants, resulting in a more flavorful extract.Dabbing is a common method of consuming rosin, although it can also be found in vape cartridges. Notably, rosin is regarded as one of the purest forms of concentrates since it is free from chemical additives.Hash (Dry-sift)Hash, also known as hashish, is a concentrated form of cannabis created by compressing or packing cannabis resin or kief. Trichomes can be frozen off using dry ice and subsequently pressed together, or resin can be collected and rolled into a ball, as in the case of charas. This solventless concentrate typically exhibits a brown color and boasts higher potency compared to cannabis flower.While hash can be dabbed, it is commonly smoked. Additionally, it can be vaporized or incorporated into food and beverages for consumption.Bubble hash (aka ice water hash, ice hash)Bubble hash is a solventless extract that should not be mistaken for dry-sift hash. It is produced by immersing cannabis plant material in ice water and gently agitating it. This process causes the trichomes to freeze and break off. The resulting liquid is then filtered through a series of mesh bags to separate the plant matter.Bubble hash is often evaluated based on its quality, commonly referred to as "meltability." Full melt or six-star hash represents the highest quality, as it completely melts or bubbles away when exposed to heat. The color of bubble hash can vary, ranging from light blond to dark brown.